Illegal Abortions in India

It seems to me clear as daylight that abortion would be a crime. ” -Mohammad Karachi Gandhi Abortion or miscarriage means the spontaneous or Induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus Is Independently viable, which Is usually taken as occurring after the 28th week of conception. Children born a few days before the 28th week are known to have survived with modern care. It has also been defined as the expulsion or removal of all (complete) or any part (incomplete) of the placenta or membranes with or without any aborts.

Medically, abortion means the expulsion of he ovum within the first 3 months of the pregnancy; miscarriage, the expulsion of the fetus from 4th- 7th month; and premature delivery, the delivery of a baby after 7th month of pregnancy and before full term. Legally, miscarriage, abortion and pre mature labor are now accepted as synonymous terms, indicating any termination of pregnancy at any stage or before confinement.

Life begins at the moment of conception; after conception, it takes about 7- 10 days before implantation of the developing ovum takes place; the embryo goes on developing Upton the end of the 9th week, and from then onwards ;s the fetal stage. HISTORY OF ABORTION Abortion has been part of family planning since ancient times, with natural remedies being found amongst a wide variety of tribal people and in all our written sources. Our earliest texts contain no mention of abortion or abortion law.

When it does appear, it is entailed in concerns about male property rights, preservation of social order, and the duty to produce fit citizens for the state or community. The harshest penalties were generally reserved for a woman who procured an abortion against her husband’s wishes, and for slaves who produced abortion in a woman of high status. Religious texts often contained severe condemnations of abortion, recommending penance but seldom enforcing secular punishment.

The attitude in India towards abortion has changed over the centuries. The basic tenets of Hinduism are against abortion, though It Is obvious from the “Arthur Veda” that abortion was well known In India In the Vivid age. At a later date, In medieval India, abortion was a punishable offence, according to Cattily, the famous physician and theologian. Though the religious Code and society in general condemned abortion, it was obviously common practice in pre-colonial India.

As Professor Dads Guppy observes, the most important reason for this was the custom of child marriage and prohibition of remarriage amongst widows of higher castes, who were forced to take recourse to illegal abortion as the only way to get rid of their unwanted pregnancies, often aided and abetted by sympathetic relatives to protect family honor. Village Dais used to procure abortion in a routine manner, mainly using the various plants, herbal agents and other substances. This went on until the first legal provision against abortion was made under British rule In 1860, which was an attempt to check and reduce the number of legal abortions.

CLASSIFICATION OF ABORTION Abortion may be classified as spontaneous and Induced, the latter being subdivided into therapeutic and criminal. NATURAL (SPONTANEOUS) ABORTION are most frequent within the first three months of pregnancy, owing to the slight attachment of the ovum to the uterine wall. Within the first few weeks, the ovum being very minute is cast off without being recognized or abortion being suspected. Women might go one or two weeks over their time, and then often have what is supposed to be merely a more than usually profuse period. These are probably instance of such early spontaneous abortions.

Causes of spontaneous abortion The causes of spontaneous abortion are classified as those which are directly referable to the mother, and which affect the fetus. Causes directly referable to the mother 1 . Acute infections, such as pneumonia, typhoid, and polytheists occasionally lead to abortion, as also chronic wasting diseases; for example, tuberculosis, cancer and hypertension. Syphilis produces late abortions. Among these, syphilis is one of the most frequent causes of abortion, and is likely to act in successive pregnancies. It causes the death of fetus. 2.

Diseases affecting the blood, such as anemia, jaundice, rhesus sensitivity (following trans-placental bleeding), ABA incompatibility are also known to cause abortion. 3. Those acting through the nervous system, for example, psychic trauma, sudden shock, fear, Joy, sorrow, reflex action from irritation of the bladder, rectum, or mamma. 4. Abnormalities of reproductive organs, such as chronic displacements, cervical and succubus fibrosis and congenital malformations of the uterus, incompetent cervix, endocrine disturbances. Physical trauma which separates the ovum.

For instances, a blow, a fall or some other accident even of a trivial nature. 5. Lead, copper and mercury poisoning. Causes affecting the fetus 1 . Death of the fetus due to genetic abnormality, hormonal imbalance, syphilis fetal anemia and other diseases 2. Diseases of deciduous, and fibroid necrosis. INDUCED ABORTION (THERAPEUTIC) This is also known as Justifiable abortion, the induction of which is Justifiable only when caused in good faith to save the life of the woman, if it is materially endangered by the continuance of pregnancy, but not to save the family honor or for any other ethical or economical reason.

Indications of Therapeutic Abortions Therapeutic abortions constitute less than 3% of all Mats. The indications for producing therapeutic abortion are: (I) Obstetrical Conditions: Severe clamps in successive pregnancies; repeated, long and difficult labors particularly associated with psychiatric conditions, for example, reactive depression with risk of suicide, obsession or schizophrenic state, unwanted pregnancy in a mentally subnormal person.

Malignant Condition: Invasive carcinoma of the cervix, carcinoma of the ovary and sarcomas change in fibroid, abdominal reticulates, carcinoma breast tit recurrence or metastasis, and where pelvis irradiation in excess of 30 roads is received during the first three months of pregnancy. (iii) Cardiovascular Conditions: Severe cardiac failure due to uvular disease or acute rheumatic caryatids, congenital heart disease producing severe strain, thyrotrophic heart disease with trial fibrillation, hypertension with cardiac and rental failure and chemical heart disease with complications. ‘v) Respiratory Conditions: Severe respiratory insufficiency due to lung disease. (v) Alimentary Conditions: Serious relapsing conditions like peptic allure, ulcerative colitis with perforation or bleeding. (vi) Renal Conditions: Nephritic syndrome with low serum albumin. (vii) Endocrine and Metabolic Conditions: Diabetes mellitus with neophyte and proliferation reiteration, parathyroid rumor with uncontrolled calcium metabolism, severe gastronomical or juvenile rickets. Viii) Neurological Conditions: Multiple sclerosis, severe leaps, cerebral and spinal tumors, hermetically conditions, for example, Huntington Chorea, personal muscular atrophy, hereditary spastic paraplegia, anesthesia gravies showing relapse in pregnancy. (ix) Psychological and Emotional Conditions: Where here is currently present or possibility of occurrence in the future of a major psychosis, grave neurosis or suicide, these should really be Judged on a broad basis.

Unwanted pregnancy and pregnancy from incest or rape can lead to neurosis or psychosis. (x) Conditions Causing Fetal Abnormality: These include infective conditions like rubella, cytological virus and mumps. INDUCED ABORTION (CRIMINAL) Any abortion, which does not come under the rules of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 , although performed by qualified doctors, comes under criminal abortion, and the doctors are liable for prosecution and punishment.

Prior to the introduction of MET Act, 1971, 4-5 million illegal abortions were performed in India. In India, criminal abortion is resorted to mostly windows who are prevented from remarriage by rigid social custom, and in a few instances, by unmarried women to get rid of the product of conception from illicit intercourse. It is sometimes practices by married women, especially of the educated middle class, to avoid addition to their families.

With the ever increasing struggle for existence, there is every possibility of it being more common among women of this class, though the increasing spread of the knowledge of family planning and contraceptive methods bound to have a modifying influence. Criminal abortion is generally induced between the second and third month of pregnancy, but occasionally between the fourth and fifth month of pregnancy when the women is certain of her condition. Sometimes, women, believing themselves to be pregnant, make effort to produce abortion and suffer from consequent ill effect, although pregnancy may actually be absent.

Cases which recover after criminal abortion are rarely detected. A case comes for investigation before a court of law only when the women dies because of criminal abortion, or hen some enemy of hers family secretly communicates the information to the police. It is difficult to gauge the extent of criminal abortion, as reliable statistics cannot naturally be available, inasmuch as such abortions are performed in secret by women on themselves or by abortionists who practice this nefarious trade.

Means to Induce Criminal Abortion The means adopted to induce criminal abortion, either self-induced or through second party, are: (I) the internal use of drugs; and (it) mechanical violence * The Internal use of Drugs There are practically no drugs which, when administered by the mouth, act on the lately uterus, and expel its contents, unless they are given in very large doses so as administered for this purpose may be classified as: (I) those acting directly on the uterus ; (it) those acting reflex through the ignite-urinary channel; (iii) those acting reflex through the Castro-intestinal canal; and (iv) those having poisonous effect on the system generally. I) Those Acting Directly on the Uterus: These are Cobol and manageress. Cobblers increase the uterine contraction; the chief of those are ergot argentine quinine, cotton root bark and posterior pituitary extract. Ergot is the most commonly used drug for procuring criminal miscarriage. It produces powerful uterine contractions, but acts better if administered when the uterus is contracting. It, however, frequently fails during the earlier months of pregnancy. Posterior pituitary extract causes powerful contraction of the uterine muscle, but acts best at full term only. Potassium permanganate or mercuric chloride tablets have also been used in the vagina; they cause local ulceration and severe bleeding.

Manageress promote menstrual flow, but do not act as abortionists, unless administered in large and request repeated doses. The chief of these, most frequently used criminally, is saving, in the form of oil of saving or a detection or infusion of its leaves. It often causes death from Castro-intestinal irritation. Borax is also frequently used, but it is very doubtful in its action. Synthetic Getronics substances used in large doses may act as abortionists. (it) Those Acting Reflex Through the Ignite-urinary Channel: Oil of pennyroyal, tansy, and turpentine or centenaries act as irritants to the igniter- urinary channel and reflex excite uterine contractions.

In large doses, they may cause severe inflammation of the kidney and may produce albumin’s, humiliate and suppression of urine and may even cause death. (iii) Those Acting Reflex Through the Castro-Intestinal Canal: These are emetics and purgatives given in large doses. The emetic that is chiefly used is tartar emetics, and the purgatives that are commonly used for this purpose are Groton oil, gambols, clothing, illiterate and aloes. The last drug acts directly on the uterine muscle fiber, and produce powerful contractions. (v) Those Having Poisonous Effects on the System Generally: These re animal, vegetables, and metallic irritant poisons. Among the metallic poison, lead is the only drug which requires special mention.

The drugs that are chiefly used in India for the purpose of procuring criminal abortion are the seeds and the unripe fruit of Papaya, the unripe fruit of Pineapple, the seed of Discus carrot (Gala aka b]), etc. * Mechanical Violence Mechanical violence may be general or local. General: General violence acts directly on the uterus or indirectly by promoting congestion of the pelvic organs or hemorrhage between the uterus and the membranes. The following methods are usually employed: 1. Severe pressure on the abdomen by kneading, blows, kicks, Jumping and tight lacing; 2. Violent exercise such as horse riding, cycling, Jumping from a height, Jolting caused in driving on rough roads, skipping, running up and down the stairs and carrying of lifting heavy weights; 3.

Cupping, usually by placing a lighted wick on the hypo-gastric made upon the mug, while it is firmly adherent, and probably a partial separation of the placenta, or possibly very severe injury to the uterine parities is the result. This mode of procuring abortion is generally employed at advanced term of pregnancy; 4. Application of leeches to the pudenda, perineum and the inner surface of the thighs; 5. Very hot and cold hip baths alternately. Massage of the uterus through the abdominal wall is likely to result in abortion, but other kinds of violence, however severe they may be, mostly do not produce the desired effect. On the other hand, the slightest violence, such as the slipping of a foot, fright caused by a cat or dog, or even the sudden hearing of a noise, may cause abortion, especially in a woman who is predisposed to abort.

A woman who was three months pregnant, was awakened by the noise of a collision of a motor car with he wall of her house, and aborted the next day. She and her husband sued the motorist for damages. The doctor who attended the woman was clearly of the opinion that the shock resulting from hearing a noise was enough to cause a miscarriage. The jury found a verdict for the plaintiff and was awarded IEEE. Local: The commonest method of procuring abortion is to rupture the membranes by the introduction of a penetrating instrument, such as uterine sound, curette, catheter, douche canal, knitting needle, crochet hook, hair pin or stick into the cavity of the uterus.

Sometimes, abortion can also be caused by inserting finger into the uterine cervix. Owing to the rupture of the membranes, the liquor ann. flows away, and the miscarriage frequently occurs after few hours to two or three days, but occasionally may not occur for days or weeks. Some of them are explained as follows: 1. Suction. The abortionist first paralyzes the cervix (womb opening). He then inserts a hollow plastic tube with a knife-like tip into the uterus. The tube is connected to a powerful pump with a suction force 29 times more powerful than a home vacuum cleaner. The procedure tears the baby’s body into pieces and the hose frequently Jerks as pieces of the baby become lodged.

The placenta is then cut from the inner wall of the uterus and the scraps are sucked out into a bottle. As the baby head can’t pass through the tube, it is introduced into the womb an instrument that compresses the little head and then takes it out. 2. Salt Poisoning (saline injection). Most often used after the first trimester (first three months). The abortionist injects a strong salt solution directly into the amniotic sac (fluid surrounding the baby). The baby breathes and swallows it, is poisoned, struggles, and sometimes convulses. It takes over an hour to kill the baby. The mother delivers the dead baby in a day or two (sometimes alive! ).

Why “candy apple” babies? The corrosive effect of the salt solution often burns and strips away the outer layer of the baby’s skin. This exposes the raw, red, glazed-looking subcutaneous layer of tissue. The baby’s head sometimes looks like a candy apple. Some have also likened this method to the effect of napalm on innocent war victims. This technique was originally developed in the concentration camps in Nazi Germany. 3. Hormonal contraceptive (Abortion). Precocious and unnoticed abortion can happen in 50% or more of the menstrual cycles of women who are taking low doses of contraceptives. With the combined tablet, the abortion can happen once every two years.

That is, a woman who takes Abortions Three forms, two are injected and one is a vaginal suppository. Its first approved use was for “the induction of midterm’s abortion. ” The hormone produces a violent labor and delivery of whatever size baby the mother carries. If the baby is old enough to survive the trauma of labor, it may be born alive, but is usually too small to survive. In one article, among the complications listed was “live birth! “. 5. RI-J-486 A drug that produces an abortion taken after the mother misses her period. Its effect is to block the use of an essential hormonal nutrient by the newly-implanted baby, who then dies, and drops off.

Note that RI-J-486 is not a contraceptive because it does not prevent fertilization or implantation. It is used only after the mother has missed her period and the baby is at least two to three weeks old, with a beating heart (the fetal heart begins to beat when the woman is four days late for her period). It is no longer effective after six or eight weeks. Metamorphose – one of the drugs contained in RICHER – can cause liver damage, kidney destruction, heart muscle compromise, pulmonary failure, gastrointestinal pathology, and bone marrow suppression. It has also been reported to cause loss of speech function, strokes, and convulsions. 6. Dilatation or Curettage.

Uncommon today and used during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. This is similar to the suction procedure except that the abortionist inserts a curette, a loop-shaped steel knife up into the uterus. He then cuts the placenta and baby into pieces and scrapes them out into a basin. Bleeding is usually profuse. . Hysterectomy. This method is usually used late in pregnancy and is likened to an “early” Caesarian section. The mother’s abdomen and uterus are surgically opened and the baby is lifted out. Unfortunately, many of these babies are very much alive when removed. To kill the babies, some abortionists have been known to plunge them into buckets of water or smother them with the placentas.

Still others cut the cord while the baby is still inside the uterus depriving the baby of oxygen. 8. Intrauterine device (Abortion). It is a device of several forms that is placed within the uterus. It does not avoid inception but modifies the internal coating of the uterus in such a form that the developing baby who comes from the Fallopian tube, cannot be implanted and dies, His remains are later eliminated through menstruation. Science has widely shown that abortion, implies many dangerous risks like hemorrhages, infections, uterus perforations, clots, adhesion of placenta, etc. Sterility increases in a 10%. Premature birth that is a main cause of mental retardation, is drastically increased with abortion.

The main problem of the abortion is psychological and is fear: 1 . Fear for Financial difficulty to raise the child. This is a consequence of lack of confidence in God since the most beautiful and desired for a mother should be her own son. Unfortunately this consumer and false values society we all are living in, has devalued the baby who must come to this world and with its rationalism has created a false fear. Let us see a great example: Kay James, a Public Relations Officer for PRO-LIFE MOVEMENT in the United States who had his fourth baby on a table. “l was that baby”, says Mrs.. James who is graduated at the University and mother of 3 children. 2. Fear to what people or parents might think or say. When getting pregnant during the engagement). Actually, human concepts and reasoning, including those of parents or third parties must not prevent a creature from coming to this world. Life is given by God and God is above all concept. “l was going to be the seventh son and my mother was determined not to let to me be born. Then something wonderful happened. My aunt made her change her mind and that’s why I could be born. It could be said that I am a miracle “. Arthur Rubberiest, pianist. 3. Fear to the 9 months of pregnancy and to the pain during the labor. Actually, the greatest mission of every woman, is to be mother and to bring children to the world.

If animals that are irrational do not deny this right, Why is the woman going to be scared, if it is a natural function that corresponds to her feminine nature? 4. Health problems Let’s remember Beethoven’s case, the great musician who astonished with his divine music, and who is still listened by those who want to give food and breath to their soul; His mother was diagnosed with tuberculosis and his father was alcoholic. 5. Rape Rape is a horrible abuse with traumatic effects for many of its victims. For a woman who carries in her entrails a creature fruit of a rape is not helpful at all, to know that pregnancy rarely happens in these cases. Nevertheless, Should we make an innocent creature pay for his father’s crime?

A raped woman who wrote anonymously to a magazine, said that she had an appointment to be done an abortion but canceled it. “l knew that what I had in my entrails was my baby. Now I have a daughter, a precious girl. I thank God daily for not to have aborted”. 6. Hormonal contraceptives A Woman who takes either tablets, injections or implants, has certainly determined not to have a child and if she gets pregnant then she feels frustrated in her intentions and often she resorts to abortion. These contraceptives are one of the main causes of abortion nowadays. As a matter of fact, abortion, contraceptives, fallopian tubes surgery is causing, death, diseases and pain. 7.

Sex selective abortion Sex-selective abortion is a major challenge and reportedly account for approximately 11% of unsafe abortions in India. Recent evidence both direct and indirect, highlights that the number of sex-selective abortions has increased. Indian’s legal framework stipulates equal rights for all, regardless of gender. In practice, however, unequal power equations between males and females have led to violations of women’s reproductive rights. The girl child has often been a victim to the worst forms of coordination. Gender bias, deep-rooted prejudices, and discrimination against the girl child have led to many cases of female fetid in the country.

Strong male preference, with the extreme consequence of elimination of the female child, has continued to increase rather than decline with the spread of education and economic development.

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